What is Lumad history?
Lumad is a Bisayan term meaning “native” or “indigenous”. The term Lumad is the ascribed collective name of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao. These presently comprise the 18 ethno- linguistic indigenous peoples whose previous generations have continuously inhabited the island of Mindanao since time immemorial.
They are slash-and-burn farmers who fish, hunt, gather, and practice little trade. The Minoritization of the Indigenous Communities of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago outlines “what the Lumads (sic) desire,” which can also be said to reflect the struggles of the lumad throughout history up to the present.
“Lumad” is a Cebuano term for “native” or “indigenous”. It is a collective term used to describe the indigenous people of Mindanao.
'Lumad' is the umbrella term for the indigenous peoples of the southern Philippines whose ancestors did not convert to Islam in pre-colonial times. The Higaunon people, in turn, comprise one of the largest Lumad ethnic groups today, with their territory reaching across five different provinces in northern Mindanao.
“The name Lumad grew out of the political awakening among them during the martial law regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. In June 1986, representatives from 15 tribes agreed to adopt a common name in a congress which also established Lumad Mindanao.
The term Lumad, a Visayan word meaning “born from the earth,” was first used to refer to them in 1986 at their first political assembly to discuss issues concerning their cultural determination within their respective ancestral land.
Lumads have not succumbed to the modern ways of living. Up to this day, they prefer to live in the mountainsides of Mindanao, living the traditional life. Their beliefs can be seen through the ornaments of every woman and the woven dresses they wear. They believe in spirits and gods.
They often face exclusion, loss of ancestral lands, displacement, pressures to and destruction of traditional ways of life and practices, and loss of identity and culture. In extreme situations, social and political discontent has erupted into armed conflict.”
There are 18 Lumad ethnolinguistic groups namely, Atta, Bagobo, Banwaon, B'laan, Bukidnon, Dibabawon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manguwangan, Manobo, Mansaka, Subanon, Tagakaolo, Tasaday, Tboli, Teduray, and Ubo.
|Bai Bibyaon Ligkayan Bigkay|
|Occupation(s)||Community leader, environmentalist|
Where is Lumad from?
The Lumad are a group of Austronesian indigenous people in the southern Philippines. It is a Cebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous".
“Lumad”” is a political term that first entered the lexicon of popular use during the period of the Marcos dictatorship when activists used it to refer to non-Moro indigenous peoples victimized by state-sponsored development aggression involving the expansion of logging, mining, and agricultural plantations into their ...
The Lumad consist of the Subanen, Manobo, B'laan, Ata, Mandaya, T'boli, Higaonon, Tiruray (Teduray), Mansaka, Bagobo, Bukidnon, Dibabawon, Tagakaolo, Banwaon, Ubo Manobo, Manguwangon, Lambangian and Mamanwa tribes.
It is the self-ascription and collective identity of the non-Islamized indigenous peoples of Mindanao. There are 18 Lumad ethnolinguistic groups namely, Atta, Bagobo, Banwaon, B'laan, Bukidnon, Dibabawon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manguwangan, Manobo, Mansaka, Subanon, Tagakaolo, Tasaday, Tboli, Teduray, and Ubo.
While estimates on the total number of Lumads in the country vary, available data suggest there are at least 2 million living in Mindanao. Most Lumads live in remote areas which serve as the theatre of operations of the government's campaign against the NPA.
Their Ancestral Domain has been illegally grabbed and transformed into plantations or ranches in gross violation of their rights as embodied in the Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA LAW). When they would countervail against these aggressions to protect their rights, they are being erased from the face of the earth.
For decades, Lumad communities have faced violence and displacement at the hands of the Philippine military, corporate armies, civilian militias, and rebel groups. Most accounts of Lumads portray them as passive victims who are “caught in between” warring factions of capitalists and leftists.
The term lumad comes from the Cebuano language and means 'native' or 'natural born citizen'; indigenous or 'from the earth'. In a region whose lingua franca is Binisaya/Cebuano, lumad gained currency as a practical and convenient generic term to encompass the various local indigenous groups.